Humayun , born Mar. 6, 1508, died on Jan. 24, 1556, the second Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1530 to 1540 and again briefly in 1555-56. He was the son of Babur and the father of Akbar. It was left to Humayun to secure the basis of Mogul rule that his father did not live to consolidate; he waged a 10-year struggle with the Afghans and the Hindus, both of whom contested his control over Babur's conquests. Defeated by the Afghans under Sher Shah and driven out of India in 1540, he invaded India again in 1555, recaptured his empire, and returned to Delhi. He died in an accidental fall in his palace 6 months later. Humayun's tomb in New Delhi is one of the finest surviving monuments of MOGUL ART AND ARCHITECTURE; it served as a prototype for the Taj Mahal, which was built by his great-grandson, Shah Jahan.